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LEAD Volume 9 MARCH, 1939 Number 2 A-- Lead pan coated both sides n>ith -- asphal turn Lead shield in corners M -Lead shield , \\ Soldered rn-Studdmg fj Cement and send f* ----------- mixture LTar paper Lead waste pipe W*5* - Weepho/es Lead pan coated both s/des rv+h aspha/tum SECTION A-A Drawing of correct installation of lead shower pan Lead Shower Pans and Stubs in Hospital Modernization P LIMBING modernization is an important part of remodeling Adequate waterproofing for show ers is very necessary, not only for hos work at the Essex County Hospital, pitals. but in all other buildings. Cedar Grove, N. J. Particular care There are many examples of costly has been taken to provide sanitary, damage to walls, ceilings and struc modern plumbing. Therefore, lead tural parts from leakage that could pans were used under stall showers have been avoided by lead pans. Leak and lead stubs to connect the wall- age is also dangerous from a sanitary hung water closets. Both are recog standpoint, since showers are often nized throughout the country as the installed over rooms where food is most dependable means of water prepared or served. proofing and connecting water closets respectivelv as evidenced by an ever- increasing number of cities requiring SPECIFY MATERIAL lead for these purposes bv ordinance. Such widely scattered cities as Atlan *Ppov*v ta, Ga.; Tulsa. Okla.; Bakersfield. The dependability of lead shower Cal.; Springfield. Mo.; Salt Lake pans is due to lead's durability and City, Utah; Phillipsburg. N. J., and flexibility. Lead pans fold easily for Asheville. N. C.. are but a few of the the upstand and corners without cities making both of these require danger of cracking, and can he ments. dressed down smoothly, eliminatine pockets which might result in settling and cracked tile. Lead bends or stubs, being flexible, are able to take up building m o ment and vibration without danger of cracked closet howls. Furthermore, fixtures are set more easily and quick ie because lead bends or stubs may he bent slightly to make up for slight in accuracies in measurement. Together with their smooth inner bore, dura bility, and freedom from clogging, these advantages make lead pipe the most serviceable material, not only for closet connections but for prac tically every other part of the plumb ing installation. The plumbing modernization of the Essex Countv Hospital is under the supervision of the Essex County Dept, of Plants and Structures, Henry H. Berg. Superintendent. View at left sfww:s jour lead stubs tor wall-hung water closets, and at right, lead shower pan. coaled both sides with asphaltum, with tile work partially laid, both installations at the Essex County Hospital T. ROBFRT LI R DSL L V [2] LlA25507 at San Francisco Fair Uses Lead Painted with W kite Lead Flashed with Sheet Lead I .It left a close-up of one corner of the U estern Pine Home, showing the lead chimney cap. and at right a detail of the orna- .mental lead lantern MORTON PHOTOGRAPHS HEET lead and pure white lead Pine Home" for chimney flashings, S and oil paint have been extensive vallev and window flashing, down ly used on the attractive Cape Cod spouts. and also for the chimney cap. sheet metal work of this tvpe insures permanent, trouble-free waterproof ing. Because of its pliability, it is Colonial exhibition home of the West Also, sheet lead was employed for the easily worked into form on the job. ' ern Pine Association at Treasure Is ornamental entrance lamp. All inter saving time and expense. Also, there land for the Golden Gate International ior and exterior painting was done is the added feature that lead does not Exposition. The first of several such w ith pure w hite lead and oil paint. disfigure adjacent building materials homes scheduled to be erected, the In a description of the materials by staining. All of these advantages I "Western Pine Home" is situated ad used in the exhibition home, the W est may be obtained within the price i joining the large Homes and Gardens ern Pine Association states: "Certi- range of other materials used for these Building. It was designed in the S5.000 grade Red Cedar Shingles were used purposes. to S6.000 price range by Royal Barry on the roof, and such other important By using pure white lead and oil W ills. architect, of Boston. Mass., and items as sheet lead flashing and white paint, architects, contractors and home serves as a practical demonstration of lead paint were provided to insure a owners are assured of painting done the beauty and comfort that can be in first class job." with highest quality material, that. h\ corporated into small frame houses The use of sheet lead for all flashing virtue of its long life, superior re without sacrificing in the least the is indeed indicative of first class con sistance to atmospheric attacks, and its quality of materials used. struction. Lead is the most durable of heautv. will mean a better job for a Sheet lead was used in the "Western all common metals, and its use for lonaer time, at less cost. Two views of the Western Pine Home at the Golden Gate Exposition. Pure white lead and oil paint was used throughout and alt flashings were made of lead 1 '1 .i i| [3] LIA25508 Helpful Technical Article on Modern Lead Plumbing Trend Toward Use of More Lead Shown by Survey HERE is without doubt, today, a Tgrowing trend toward the use of more and more lead in plumbing inH orizontal lead soil stallations. line with bend, Indication of this trend to more lead work is shown bv an article entitled "Lasting Lead Work in Modern branch waste and rent wiped together on the bench. Since much of the neces Plumbing" written by T. N. Thom son. Technical Editor of Plumbing and Heating Journal, appearing in sary lead work mav be done on the bench where it is easier to work, a better and the February. 1939. issue. In this ar ticle. which also gives detailed draw ings of the use of lead, Mr. Thomson quicker job is made. The photo at the bottom right shows these parts installed attributes the growing desire of the trade for more lead work to the fact PHOTOS BY DAYTON SNYDER that "lead is such a durable material when properly installed, and because it is so very useful for bending and fitting in tight spaces . . . ." Under the principal places where lead is most Practices Apply to Installation of the commonly used are listed: branch Trade's Old Reliable Piping Mate wastes to fixtures: short vent pipes for rial." Lead truly is one of the oldest fixtures wastes: water closet and slop and most reliable plumbing materials sink bends; roof flashings around ever to be used, for lead has all the pipes: safes under showers, and other characteristic advantages necessary forms of waterproofing floors of bath rooms and washrooms; linings for tanks and troughs; linings for chem LEAD INDUSTRIES' ical sinks; chemical wastes: water supply pipes underground, such as tap for good plumbing installations: su connections and service pipes from perior durability, high corrosion re street mains. sistance. flexibility, non-staining, non The reasons for this emphasis on clogging. and economy. This article lead are ably summarized by Mr. gives an excellent practical discussion Thomson's sub-heading. "High Grade of the handling of lead under modern building conditions. It should make valuable reading for those who deal with the specification, supervision and construction of modern plumbing. We will supply reprints of the complete article and drawings to anyone re questing them. Further indication of the trend to lead is clearly demonstrated by a re cent survey of plumbing ordinances in 400 representative cities, throughout the United States, with a total popula tion of over 45.000.000. On a popu lation basis 22.4 per cent of codes passed prior to 1933 and still in effect placed particular emphasis on the use At lett. a close-up of wiped solder joints, showing horizontal and vertical joints and branch joints. ITiped joints are permanently bonded to the pipe and do not clog or retard how At right, note hole easily the pipe is bent, elim inating numerous fit tings which retard the how and are likely to clog. Upon completion of the roughing-in all horizontal pipes will be continuously supported and vertical pipes fixed with lead cleats to the studs f lead, either by specific requirement or restrictions on the use of other ma terials. In those codes passed from 1933 to 1938. inclusive, this figure in creased to 45.0 per cent. Furthermore jf onlv those codes which were passed in 1937 and 1938 were taken into ac count. the percentage reaches 69.2 per cent. These figures clearly show the trend in materials which sanitary en gineers and plumbing experts, who prepare ordinances, deem advisable for the plumbing system. Bv specifying lead plumbing you assure your clients of the best plumb ing possible, and. furthermore, protect them against unskilled work, for lead work can only be installed by skilled craftsmen. By specifying that the Roughing-in for an up stairs bathroom. Mote the gradual bends allow ing tree How. and the lead pipe reeved through holes instead of notch ing beams which would tend to weaken the structure DAYTON SNYDF.R Lead Industries' Seal of Approval be stamped on all lead products you fur ther protect vour clients and your selves. for the Seal assures that the material meets our high standards for quality and adequate sizes and weights. Pure White Lead and Oil Helps Sell Development Homes T1 HAT pure white lead and oil paint is exceptionally attractive, but it is in decoration that combines the essential contributes greatly to the success their construction that New Salem sur factors of protection, durability and of development building is well dempasses the ordinary run of small home economy, and. at the same time, allows onstrated by the New Salem project at projects. Very careful attention has the decorative treatment of any home Port Washington. Long Island. been paid in specifying only highest to be restyled easilv and reasonably at This development, which, when quality materials for these homes. In any time. completed, will include almost 500 this respect the use of pure white lead The successful sale of small develop small homes priced from S7.490. is and oil paint is a noteworthv feature. ment homes is dependent to a large ex a striking example of the sound use of Painting is all too often taken for tent on the impression that prospective basic building principles. New Salem granted, whereas it is a basic part of clients gain from the exterior appear is stvled with strict adherence to the home construction and should be ance of the houses, singly and as a traditional New England village, and specified in detail just as the other whole. People judge by what they see vet is distinctly modern in facilities. parts of the house. and it is the appearance and condition The design and layout of these homes Paint is the onlv medium for home of the paint decoration that creates the I ip i )1 ) [5] LIA255 10 Tito uhitc-lead painted homes at .Veit' Salem. White lead paint in crease'- the salability of small hnmes by mninny the house decoration beautiful and lasting first and lasting impression, and these two points are often the determining factors in either the sale of a home or in a prospective client's selection of a builder or architect. The exteriors of small development homes are very similar to window displays in stores. If attractive, prospective customers are drawn in. and the operator has a better chance to demonstrate in detail the complete home. On the other hand if inferior quality paint or unskilled application has gone into the painting, the attractiveness of the development will suffer and clients will not be fa vorable impressed or wish to investi gate the project more closely. In this respect one point must be remembered. It is not enough that the exterior paint decoration be attractive when first applied. It must remain so. In anv development, the houses first erected have usually been standing for some time before the whole project is completed. Although, when first painted, the original few homes may have been attractive, if the paint used is not durable this beauty will fade rapidly and the sale of later homes must suffer due to the uninviting ap pearance of those first constructed. Williams-Harter Corporation, build ers of New Salem have fully realized this important part that paint plavs in successful development building. Pure white lead and oil paints are used throughout, assuring lasting beauty, since white lead wears smoothly and evenly, is elastic, allowing expansion and contraction with the painted sur face. and assures complete surface protection until such time as redecora tion is desired. The C. J. W illiams Co.. of Brooklyn. N. Y.. are in complete charge of painting decoration. Lead Used as Containing Fluid in Hydraulic Press HE use of lead as the confining pressure so that it behaves almost like Tfluid for hydraulic presses has a liquid at the high pressures em been reported by David Griggs. Harp loyed. For this reason the pressure is vard physicist, in experiments on the applied uniformly over the entire sur plasticity of various types of rocks face of the specimen. In the drawing. from which clues to the underground C and R are the high pressure cylinder mechanism causing earthquakes and and supporting ring designed by Pro other geological phenomena have been fessor P. W. Bridgman, a pioneer in obtained. Contrary to past belief, this research. P, is a piston which rocks under high pressure will not transfers the pressure and P2 acts as a flow indefinitely but will break if de base plate against which the specimen formation is carried far enough. Q is compressed. The specimen is sur Quartz, however, although it had been rounded bv lead as the confining fluid thought to become plastic, under high in the high pressure chamber. In the pressures was changed, aside from experiment, the force (F l on the pis fracture, only bv an alteration of opti ton is increased at a constant rate, cal quality known as "undulatory ex squeezing the lead until the specimen tinction." hits the bottom piston. The force on In the draw ing. the method of using the upper piston is then split into two lead in the press is shown. The ad components, one of which forces the vantage of lead for this work is that it lead out around the upper piston (a is one of the few materials in which clearance of usually a few thou the shear strength does not increase sandths of an inchi. and the other acts greatly with the application of high as a differential stress on the speci men. The force is then increased at a constant rate until the specimen breaks. In this way differential pres sures more than 1.500.000 lb. per sq. in. can he attained. Draining ni hydraulic press in uhich lead is used as the containing fltiid [6] LI A? 5 511 Lead Plumbing in New City Hall at Houston, Texas Lead Fixture Connections and Roof Flashings Ben IT. It arren. plumbing cnnlruclor on the left and Chief Plumbing Inspector A. A. Peary at the right LL soil, waste and vent pipes in tions must be maintained. This is es A Houston's new City Hall are of pecially true of public buildings of lead and cast iron with lead-calkedthis type of construction, in which the joints, and all roof flashings are madeplumbing is used by a large number of from 6 lb. sheet lead. All fixture con people. For this reason, the selection nections including wall-hung closets are made with lead in order to provide necessary flexibility. Now under con struction. the new municipal building SPECIFY At Qjf *Pp*OV^ MATERIAL will be ten stories high and of com of lead and cast iron, as specified by pletely modern, fireproof construc the Houston plumbing code is the tion. wisest possible choice. This combina Durable and efficient materials are tion of plumbing materials is ideal, essential in any building because it not only because of its superior dura- is expensive to repair and replace bilitv and dependability, but also for plumbing and because sanitarv condi its efficiency. Lead plumbing is non clogging and does not retard flow, and is at all times flexible. Furthernlon w:hen clients know that lead is to be used, they realize that the installation will be made according to best plumb ing practice, since it takes a skilled craftsman to install lead. Similarly, the use of lead roof flash ings is a practice required by manv of the better modern plumbing ordi nances. Highly resistant to corrosion, they form a permanent waterproofing that is durable and attractive, fully protecting the client's interest. Furthermore, lead roof flashings are non-staining. Just as the use of lead L1A2 55 l 2 * service and supply pipes eliminate the possibility of uglv discoloration on bathroom and kitchen fixtures, so water coursing over lead roof flashings does not stain adjacent building mate rials. This is due to the fact that rain water washing over the lead does not dissolve out compounds which soak into paint, masonry, woodwork or other materials leaving disfiguring stains which cannot be removed. The new City Hall was designed bv Joseph Finger. Inc. The barren Co., of Houston, were the plumbing con tractors. Correct Method of Laying Pipe is an Important Factor in Service Pipe Installation ORRECT laying of service pipe neck should be formed in the pipe be C is an important installation fac fore passing through the foundation tor. First, the trench should be deewpall. (This is in addition to the goose enough so that the pipe will be below neck that should always be formed at the frost level, and should be dug as the main as described in detail in straight as possible. It should slope Lead , March, 1938. i The service pipe with an even gTade to either the street entering the building should pass main or foundation wall in order to through a cast-iron sleeve built into avoid trapping the service. When the the foundation wall and the joint trench is dug from soil containing waterproofed by calking with lead rocks which might damage the pipe, wool. fine soil or sand should be filled in the Where electrolysis is known to be trench bottom before laying the pipe. present in the ground, or where there Where the ground has been back is free lime, some precautionary meas filled around the foundation, or in the ures should be taken. Where there is case of very long runs, a slight goose- free lime the service should be coated with tar. Thi* may h done by pouring tar over the pipe from an ordinary SPECIFY MATERIAL watering can. after the service is laid in the trench. By lifting the pipe slightly the tar will flow under and as sure a complete coating. 'ft here there is electrolysis the pipe should be laid in a V-shaped trench or in half sec tions of tile pipe and embedded in pitch poured in the trench or tile. Backfilling the trench should be done with fine sand or soil, free from rocks, for at least six inches. Also, where it is possible to deter mine the exact length of the service, it is recommended that the couplings be wiped onto the lengths of lead-pipe on the shop-bench. This will make a more satisfactory job under better working conditions. SPECIFY ttM. Q, MATERIAL UPON REQUEST, THE LEAD INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION WILL BE GLAD TO MAIL "LEAD" REGULARLY, FREE OF CHARGE, TO THOSE INTERESTED. AND WILL COOPERATE, WITHOUT OBLIGATION, IN THE SOLUTION OF YOUR LEAD PROBLEMS PRINTED IN U.S.A. BY PUBLISHERS PRINTING CO., NEW YORK CITY